Pedagogical content knowledge includes . Well, according to Shulman, pedagogical content knowledge is the blending of content and pedagogy into an understanding of how particular problems, topics, or issues are organized, represented, and adapted to the diverse interests and abilities of learners and presented for instruction. Pedagogical content knowledge requires an understanding of where students are coming from in reference to the subject being taught. Lee Shulman's model of pedagogical reasoning and action is related to his theory of pedagogical content knowledge and includes the following components: comprehension; transformation (preparation, representation, selection, and adaptation and tailoring to student characteristics); instruction; evaluation; reflection; and new comprehensions. Knowledge and teaching: Foundations of the new reform. PEDAGOGICAL CONTENT KNOWLEDGE 11. Pedagogical Content Knowledge in Social Studies. h/61P�#���>i.��`Y�@*��m��bFY� ->/Metadata 85 0 R/OCProperties<>/OCGs[1079 0 R]>>/Pages 1041 0 R/StructTreeRoot 115 0 R/Type/Catalog>> endobj 1048 0 obj <>/ExtGState<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageC]/XObject<>>>/Rotate 0/StructParents 0/Tabs/S/Type/Page>> endobj 1049 0 obj <>stream These include : curricula with their scopes and sequences; tests and testing materials; institutions with their hierarchies, their explicit and implicit systems of rules and roles; professional teachers’ organizations with their functions of negotiation, social change, and mutual protection; government agencies from the district through the sstate and federal levels; and general mechanisms of governance and finance. In what terms can these sources be conceptualized? According to Shulman (1986), PCK represented the knowledge to represent and formulate subjects to make it understandable for others. This article reports the authors’efforts to develop a practice-based theory of content knowledge for teaching built on Shulman’s (1986) notion of pedagogical content knowledge. Pedagogical content knowledge (PCK, Shulman, 1986) bridges the content/skills canon of a discipline, the student learners, and the most effective instructional strategies. In Shulman’s view, pedagogical content knowledge is a form of practical knowledge that is used by teachers to guide their actions in highly contextualized classroom settings. He argued that, on top of subject knowledge and general pedagogical skills, teachers must know how to teach topics in ways that learners can understand. Time!!! (MY THOUGHTS – He is giving a rationale for content expertise for those who observe teaching practices.). Because teachers necessarily function within a matrix created by these elements, using and being used by them it stands to reason that the principles, policies, and facts of their function comprise a major source for the knowledge base” (p. 9). The role of teacher's pedagogical content knowledge in social studies is addressed through two case studies: a novice and a veteran teacher. One portion of Shulman's pedagogical content knowledge construct is knowing what makes a subject difficult and what preconceptions students are apt to bring. Lee S. Shulman is an American educational psychologist. “Pedagogical content knowledge is the category most likely to distinguish the understanding of the content specialist from that of the pedagogue” (p. 8). Pedagogical content knowledge is the category most likely to distinguish the understanding of the content specialist from that of the pedagogue" (Shulman, 1987, p. 4). h�ԛi�\Ǖ��J~�`h��$Ғ8m-6奝�%�,�&�. 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