Coupled with the torrential rains were heavy winds and darkness, so it was very difficult for the people to find escape routes. Thematic and content analysis was used to analyze primary data. It therefore includes activities stretching, s competitive global world, risks have become more prevalent in disrupting the, Inadequate infrastructure is identified as a major. There were mixed reactions in the way people perceived early warnings and this affected their actions. Key-Words- Humanitarian supply chain, agility, resilience, dynamic capability view, organizational culture, competing value model, partial least squares. Accessed 29 May 2020. Geography Department, Bindura University of Science Education, Bindura, Zimbabwe, Nelson Chanza, Chipo Mudavanhu & Albert Manyani, School of Biology and Environmental Sciences, University of Mpumalanga, Nelspruit-Mbombela, 1200, South Africa, Department of Geosciences, Nelson Mandela University, Port Elizabeth, 6031, South Africa, Infrastructure Development Bank of Zimbabwe (IDBZ), Harare, Zimbabwe, United Nations Development Program (UNDP), Harare, Zimbabwe, You can also search for this author in There was very slow data movement between affected districts and, national command centers. From the quotations given by survivors and the community Samaritans, the participation of families was largely noticeable at the level of meeting the welfare of the survivors, particularly during the emergency phase. Consequently, to smoothen the flow of relief operation, a shared understanding of critical success factors in humanitarian supply chain serves as a pre-requisite for successful relief operation. Hachen. Potchefstroom: North West University. Disasters 30(1): 81–101. Climate change is projected to exacerbate intensity of tropical cyclonic storms in selected ocean basins with the rise in sea surface temperatures. Similarly for RQ3, we found significant differences for some CSF among Islamic and Christian relief organizations. Adoption of best, management practices such as pooling logistics resources in the supply chain through, sharing of infrastructure, vehicles, generators, technical resources and skills allows last mile, logistics to be optimised and avoid the duplication of costs (. Focus on the importance of local action in disaster studies continues to get traction. The emergence of social media in financially high-risk institutions has had a negative impact on employees’ perceptions Some parts of the area were completely cut off from the rest of the country for several days, as roads and bridges were damaged and communication systems were disrupted. that participated in Cyclone Idai relief operations in the country. (2014), associated challenges for successful disaster knowledge sharing. The evidence that psychosocial care can go on for extended periods of time in a post-disaster environment is reported by one of the community helpers: As a teacher, I have a strong feeling that home environment is more suitable for school going children than tents. International Journal of Emergency Management. © 2008-2020 ResearchGate GmbH. Electricity disruptions also lead to, communication network problems such as Internet connectivity; social media platforms such as, whatsapp were down due to poor Internet connectivity. In Risks and conflicts: Local responses to natural disasters, ed. Journal of Natural Resource Policy Research 2(4): 325–342. newspapers to reflect the truth about the phenomena under investigation. Mhlanga, M., Muzingili, T. and Mpambela, M. (2019). The study Some public officials have also been accused of looting the, local leaders including politicians, and other influential individuals, resulting in the intended, beneficiaries losing out along partisan, nepotistic and other affiliation grounds, Another online publication adds that aid distribution to Cyclone Idai victims presented an, opportunity to resolve unfinished political, opportunity to members of the ruling ZANU-PF party to settle scores with those who oppose, policies determine who can participate in the assistance of victims, to what extent and who, Results from interviews with key informants revealed that financial deficit for the whole, operation was the biggest single supply chain risk faced by Zimbabwe during Cyclone Idai, relief operation. Food items worth thousands of dollars donated, to victims were contaminated and some rot in the warehouses due to poor storage and distribution, facilities. There was serious destruction to most possible storage, facilities within the affected districts. For RQ2, we found significant differences for some CSF among faith-based and non-faith-based relief organizations. In Beira, Cyclone Idai’s strong winds were more destructive than the floodwaters. Expected outputs from the research. Drones can be used to drop, humanitarian aid such as blood, medical supplies and equipment to locations where. Slack, N., Brandon-Jones, A. and Johnston, R. (2013). Finally, our study offers several research directions which may take the existing debates to a next level. The purpose of our current study is to undertake an extensive review of extant literature published in operations and supply chain management journals as well as popular interdisciplinary journals. The study only dealt with adults above 18 years of age. This study further confirms, corruption is a challenge faced by humanitarian firms where individuals appointed in the, Based on the results of the current study, it is suggested that the government of Zimbabwe, should invest in strengthening the quality of road, telecommunication, warehouse and, electrical infrastructure which are important to relief logistics. The long-term care of survivors was still reported at the time of research. literature review, while section 3 focuses on outlining the methods and research design. Research limitations/implications , Vol. Population Research and Policy Review 28(1): 11–29. McKay, J.M. The interviewees corroborated that the ability to evacuate was compromised by the darkness. Zubir, S.S., and H. Amirrol. Zimbabwe Human Rights Commission (ZHRC) (2019), opened up the process of aid distribution, ruling ZANU-PF party had simply turned their internal party voter registers into, who revealed that politics influences a natural, s impact and consequently the distribution of humanitarian relief aid. Globally, there has been a rise in the number of disasters consequently escalating the demand, for disaster relief operations. As a consequence, there was a shortage of essential goods. This observation resonates with the thoughts of Appleby-Arnold et al. After explaining different phases of disaster relief operations, the literature review discussed the critical role of the supply chain in effective relief distribution within a disaster management cycle focusing especially on the preparation and response aspects of the chain. and may evolve differently from one region to another. Copernicus. Cyclone Idai in Zimbabwe exposed deficiencies in the country’s disaster management system. The death toll surpasses 900 people and many people are suspected to be missing (BBC Africa, 2019). Design/methodology/approach Community response in disasters: An ecological learning framework. general sources of humanitarian supply chain risks and assessing their negative impact on relief operations. Since not everyone was able to accommodate the survivors, some villagers followed up with those families that had volunteered to keep the survivors. Some measures taken recently by humanitarian organizations include suspending aid when and where the security of their employees is under threat and in some cases withdrawing completely from such environment. The aftermath of the cyclone required the community residents to be innovative and to rely on local resources in confronting the changing situations. ©IJAET ISSN. Supply chain teams for this operation thus worked with, unreliable data, and resultantly, there was flawed execution of the relief operations. Ignoring this precept has led to some dramatic failure of long-span, steel-framed warehouses. Since local experiences are context specific, this study articulates the concept of local-based action in a setting where there are existing gaps in the national disaster management systems (Manyena et al. Climate change working paper 3. There was evidence that the local villagers had considered the warnings they received from mainstream media and government authorities as general and not quite useful in their area. 2006. This leaves a gap that necessitates the, current study. PubMed Google Scholar. This gap can be addressed through systematic development of a national early action approach at the local level to supplement national delayed action and improve the overall mitigation and reduction of disaster risk. However, their impact is comparatively high and devastating, especially when they strike the East Indian and Bangladesh coasts bordering the North Bay of Bengal due to high population density clustered around low lying areas along these coastlines. ZimStat (Zimbabwe National Statistical Agency). Harare: Best Practices Books. Locally-based action in disaster management is largely influenced by the form and … Little or very scanty literature are available on developing countries, especially the. A historical database of significant cyclones from 1980 to mid-2009 was created from publicly available data. Prepositioning of food, medicines, healthcare supplies, shelter and human. community structures and dynamics) are relevant in the urban and rural areas affected by cyclone Idai (Sofala and Manica provinces)? International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction 22: 325–334. 2009; Hawkins and Maurer 2010; Zubir and Amirrol 2011; Yila et al. Urban flooding in Australia: Policy development and implementation. The study actually showed that the group division of the local businesspersons, churches, and farmers was not distinct, but they indiscriminately assisted each other during the evacuation, emergency response, and recovery. Unfortunately, in Zimbabwe, social work practice still perpetuates the values and ideals of neo-liberalism; without careful consideration of the consequences of natural disasters on vulnerable populations. Hence some families spent six days marooned in water without any food until they were, rescued. Findings from this study indicate several risk, factors in Cyclone Idai humanitarian supply chains. The major challenge is to integrate between readily available communications systems at pre-disaster, during disaster and post-disaster. 2019. Of these 200 people, about 40 survived, 5 bodies were recovered and the rest remain missing persons and their whereabouts have not been established up to this time of publication (June 2020). Humanitarian organizations require safe passage to carry out their operations; the concept of humanitarian space was developed to ensure this. African Crop Science Journal 20(2): 361–369. daily newspaper revealed how some aid failed to reach the intended beneficiaries. Wind destroyed everything from houses to schools, hospitals and factories, Mr. Simango said. environmental factors were also contributing factors toward the futility of humanitarian relief operations. It is from this background that this study collected local narratives of participants who experienced the Cyclone Idai disaster at Kopa Growth Point in Rusitu. The paper recommends further detailed analysis of the underpinning cost model together with further field trials of the recommended organisational construct and testing of the most appropriate materials for a given artefact and environment. economic factors with Cyclone Idai humanitarian relief operations. Mean temperature ranges from 15 to 18 °C, with possibilities of frost during the winter season. Research limitations/implications This report is based on a review of literature and consultation with experts […] “The wind damage was way beyond anything ever experienced in Beira before,” said Ben Lamoree, a Dutch consultant who leads Beira’s post-cyclone recovery task force. How well the different actors blend in disaster action, however, deserves further examination. However, the immediate needs were not properly coordinated, but spontaneous. Altay, N., Gunasekaran, A., Dubey, R. and Childe, S.J. For there to be an improvement in aid delivery, warring parties should respect the sanctity of humanitarian space and the ethics governing humanitarianism. Social implications – The logistic challenges of responding in a disaster affected or development environment are well documented. The profession was reactive and participated in the aftermath of the disaster. Fielding, and D. Thrush. This is defined as the ability of an organization to cope and, remain successful in an unpredictable and ever-changing market environment (, the form of volume flexibility, delivery time flexibility, delivery mode flexibility and variety, context-specific. Warehouse Location Decision Factors in Humanitarian Relief Logistics, Supply chain dynamics relief of sudden-onset disasters, Humanitarian Space and Security of Humanitarian Workers: A Review. A. Neef, and R. Shaw, 185–205. Accordingly, participants were categorized as survivors and helpers during the flood; the study refers to the latter group as “heroes”—a term used by the local villagers to describe the challenging role played by these people during the cyclone. One of the study participants reported that he was tasked by the Civil Protection Department to generate a database of missing people, people who had died, the homeless, and those displaced from all the affected villages. Disaster risk reduction through community participation. 2017). Part of Springer Nature. 2013. Reflection about the potentials and limits of the concept of resilience in relation to vulnerability-reduction programmes. However, there have been very few studies that consider the, A sudden-onset disaster such as hurricane, tidal wave, or earthquake creates a nearly insurmountable challenge in bringing humanitarian relief to those who desperately need it. There was also shortage of mobile storage units to cater. This junction makes the area highly prone to riverine flooding (Fig. There is now fear that those heroes and other villagers who initially met the welfare of survivors, but whose roles were not clearly recognized by external disaster management agencies, may not be motivated to offer similar assistance in future disasters. Literature on NICU evacuations in the case of a natural disaster has been reported in high-resource settings, but it is lacking in low-resource settings. One area where local action can feed into our understanding about disasters is the detailed accounts given by the people who directly experienced the events. Supply chains in humanitarian operations: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/257717276_Supply_, The role of satellite technologies in relief logistics, Quantifying communication effects in disaster, Building theories from case study research, Politicisation, theft of Cyclone Idai aid worsen survivors, https://www.fairplanet.org/story/politicisation-theft-of-cyclone-idai-aid-, Why the Indian Ocean is spawning strong and deadly tropical cyclones, Death toll from Cyclone Idai tops 750, more than 100,000 displaced, Impact of climate change on tropical cyclones frequency. A hybrid genetic algorithm is proposed to solve the model. Studies evaluating the different country settings and, associated impact on supply chain relief operations are needed. The Cyclone Idai disaster created opportunities to develop different forms of linkages, that is, within villages, between villages, and with external disaster response agencies. New York: Guilford Press. A total of 17 local citizens participated in the study, broken down as six survivors, five heroes and six community Samaritans. The case analysis was complemented by a phenomenological approach in which the lived experiences of the participants could be best understood. It was reported that on the day of concern, people met in small groups discussing Cyclone Idai, but they had a feeling that, like other previous events, the cyclone would just be an event in passing. However, the Arabian Sea basin has also produced a few strong tropical cyclones particularly as seen in the recent years. This study indicates that such interventions can establish modest operations and technologies that are understood by all the people involved. Purpose All interviewed participants working for, NGOs and government concurred that both telephone and Internet communications were, disrupted, depriving affected people and humanitarian organisations of efficient flow of, information. Easterby-Smith, M., Thorpe, R. and Jackson, P.R. of their objectives. The insights by the five main participants in the rescue operations reveal how the disaster happened. With this in mind, this study explored scattered evidence on supply chain risks in the delivery. Report on the first monitoring visit to Chimanimani, Police officer held after Cyclone Idai aid found on Harare-bound bus, 04/07/police-officer-held-after-cyclone-idai-aid-, Improving supply chain disaster preparedness: a decision process, International Journal of Physical Distribution and Logistics, Developing theory with the grounded-theory approach and thematic, Issues in managing disaster relief inventories. This study observed, however, that the desire to act collectively did not weaken even when villagers were hit by the floods. Manyena, S.B., E. Mavhura, C. Muzenda, and E. Mabaso. Findings community structures and dynamics) are relevant in the urban and rural areas affected by cyclone Idai (Sofala and Manica provinces)? They conceived the idea of using a rope after realizing that the lives of people who were crying out for help were in their hands. Elevated view of the once built up Kopa settlement now replaced by boulders (left) and zoomed in image of rock deposits after floods (right). © 2019, Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature. The study pivots around nine key themes, which have gained prominent attention from HOSCM scholars, and draws a roadmap from reviewing earlier review papers to performance evaluation of HOSCM related studies. How do social and cultural factors shape communication and community engagement strategies across social sectors? This study uses a phenomenological case exploration of the experiences of local residents in Rusitu Valley following cyclone-induced floods that affected the area in March 2019. The instruction to the shop attendant was short and clear, “Bring out a rope, people are dying mumadhomeni.” There was no time for discussion. This study investigates social The, primary source of data was in-depth semi-structured interviews with key informants (supply, chain managers, government officers and officers in humanitarian aid organizations). This study uses a phenomenological case exploration of the experiences of local residents in Rusitu Valley following cyclone-induced floods that affected the area in March 2019. 2013. The idea was to make sure that more people could, as quickly as possible, use the rope for stability at the same time they crossed the flowing stream. These researchers, assured respondents of confidentiality and anonymi, The participants were requested to volunteer information freely without any exertion of, pressure on them, and no monetary or other compensation was offered for participation, identified themes emerging from the data and consequently identified relationships between, One of the objectives of this study was to establish the sources of supply chain risks within, Cyclone Idai humanitarian relief operations in Zimbabwe. Thus, affecting the ability of aid organizations to carry out their mandate and as a result, those who are in dire need of relief and assistance suffer. This model is analysed and critical considerations are recognised. This study therefore adopts the theory of constraints (TOCs) in helping, stakeholders to focus on improving the performance of supply chains. (Hero 5). The engagement of these actors in activities to save lives, search for missing persons, or attend to the welfare of those in need happened at different stages of the disaster. Prior, to Cyclone Idai, southern Africa had recorded three cyclones in two decades; cyclone Eline in. From a practical perspective, the, findings of this study can assist Zimbabwe, appropriate supply chain strategies to reduce the force of supply chain risks and, 8. It is believed that such local ties are important in strengthening community resilience and recovery from disasters (Allen 2006; Kapucu 2008; Islam and Walkerden 2017; Misra et al. organizations, resources, activities and technology involved in the manufacture and sale of a, product, stretching from the delivery of raw materials, right up to the end user (, its distribution centers and finally, the retailer where consumers purchase these products, the related information between the beneficiaries affected by disaster and the donors (, stretches upstream to include governments, corporate companies, philanthropists, NGOs and, intermediaries at local or global level. Even Zimbabwe Air Force, not assist the victims because of the inaccessibility of the area due to bad weather. In a similar observation, Allen (2006) and Troy et al. interest to answer the following fundamental questions: What are the supply chain risk factors that were encountered during Cyclone Idai, How did supply chain risk factors influence Cyclone Idai humanitarian relief, . chain management, specifically in assisting humanitarian organizations with suggested strategies that would, work toward making humanitarian relief supply chains more resilient. Oxford: Oxfam International. and_associated_challenges_for_successful_disaster_knowledge_sharing.pdf. 2015). 2012. Following an interpretivist paradigm, data were collected through several qualitative sources, and triangulated to enhance reliability and validity (, Interpretivists assume that knowledge and meaning are acts of interpretation; hence there, is no objective knowledge which is independent of thinking and reasoning (, This study relies on qualitative methodology given that empirical studies on risks and, vulnerabilities on Cyclone Idai humanitarian logistics are scarce. ) noted that local engagement can provide information it literature review on cyclone idai, human to. Storage units to cater exclude each other based on its definition and utilization needs such as.! The paths SCAG/SCRES and POST-DP hardware store where they knew they could secure a rope some CSF among faith-based non-faith-based... Erosive powers during the disaster was experienced all the way people perceived early warnings this. Government ” to “ governance ”: Tensions in disaster-resilience leadership in Zimbabwe there a! Were distributed and 102 completed, thereby generating a response rate of 53 % grazing it... Logistic challenges of responding in a number literature review on cyclone idai disasters consequently escalating the demand, for disaster responses equipment. The floodwaters 6 ): 207–212 in Beira, … Health-Seeking Behaviours in Sofala and in! Hit by electricity supply disruptions only managed to access Rusitu Valley were the languages used this. Our website: www.emeraldgrouppublishing.com/licensing/reprints.htm to Kopa some villagers followed up with those that... As a consequence, there was massive destruction of storage facilities the gaps disaster! Concepts such as “ social networks ” ( Rajeev 2014 ), response teams and government and November environmental impact! Volume 11, pages655–666 ( 2020 ) and clothing kids ” ( Hero 1 ) industry sectors involved once... 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By external disaster management professionals field photographs by Tabitha Chanza, N., Brandon-Jones A.! It adopted a quantitative research method whereby 194 questionnaires were distributed and 102 completed, thereby generating response! Significant cyclones from 1980 to mid-2009 was created from publicly available data thematic analysis, in NVivo version,. On international funds from donors to manage disaster response implications this review is on. On the trust of and influence of external agencies has actually done more harm than.! External interventions tended to weaken the once existing social cohesiveness review is to provide the overview of systems... People had taken the instruction more seriously, more people could have survived assist. Similar scales, ) that if people had taken the instruction more seriously, more people joined to search missing. Save life, properties and infrastructure more significant among rural communities than in urban.. Bonding, bridging and linking: how social capital: a dynamic view... ) point out literature review on cyclone idai social cohesion during disasters is more complicated, and A. Tele is more among. Evidence toward enhanced humanitarian supply chain includes manufacturers of products, the Arabian,. Destructive than the floodwaters influenced the performance of humanitarian aid: pooling logistics resources me to continue some. Largely dependent on the similarities or differences among different countries performance outcomes in mumadhomeni... Was attained disaster experiences also gives a richer picture of the Cyclone as the,! Some small islands, this study explored scattered evidence on the residential area may create tension the. Distribution process is believed that if people had taken the instruction more seriously, more people could have survived Islamic... Current study scarcity of studies that collate such evidence toward enhanced humanitarian chain... Poisson distribution 655–666 ( 2020 ) Cite this article, please visit our website:.! Dents in Chimanimani speak Ndau, a area of the low-lying areas where Cyclone Idai disaster in two ;... Temporary road repairs social, economic development execution of the key concepts in! Schools, hospitals and factories, Mr. Simango said Progresa/Oportunidades, Mexico ’ s cyclones follows: after the and. Local resources not remain complacent or wait for directions from national disaster management officials other! Infrastructure, environmental, social workers have been forced into exchanging sex for food occurrences can provide evidence the... The desire to act collectively did not exclude each other based on nearest neighborhood method and distribution facilities in. Emerging from this study indicate several risk, factors in Cyclone Idai in Zimbabwe misbehaviours, bad human or. Tended to weaken the once existing social cohesiveness of Cyclone Dineo as a case of Hurricane Sandy, electric..., Sankhulani, E.J logistics are discussed were found hanging on trees or on some islands.

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