0000068521 00000 n Although evidence suggests an important role for teacher leaders in influencing peers’ practice and there is correlational evidence of an effect on student learning, there has been little careful analysis of the effects of teacher leaders on student learning. How can science education capitalize on children's natural curiosity? 3. You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. 17 Teaching Principles of Effective Instruction. Professional development for all teachers: Achieving educational excellence and equity in the era of accountability. Supovitz, J.A., and Turner, H. (2000). Lanham, MD: Rowan and Littlefield. their biology teacher had taken. The researchers supported these findings experimentally, tracked them longitudinally, and used case studies to learn how individual teachers acquire and utilize knowledge of student ideas to inform instruction. High Student Engagement and Involvement . Stanford, CA: Center for Research on the Context of Teaching, Stanford University. San Francisco, CA: Jossey Bass. District staff or principals may make decisions about how they spend their time and what responsibilities they assume, or science specialists themselves may use their own professional judgment in determining to do so. (1999). Knapp, M.S., McCaffrey, T., and Swanson, J. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. 0000067216 00000 n Developing communities of instructional practice. (2002). 0000067499 00000 n Teachers were matched in pairs according to school characteristics, and one member of each pair was then randomly assigned to a control group, which would teach FAST as they normally did, while the other was assigned to an experimental group, which would implement the curriculum-embedded assessments. American Journal of Education, 106, 532-575. Other states use tests to assess subject matter knowledge. Bilingual Research Journal, 27(3), 357-383. (2004). Assessing the impact of unobservables on education. While organizing groups of teachers to work together can result in functional communities that focus their efforts and resources on instructional improvement and teacher learning, merely creating group structures by no means guarantees such positive outcomes. Louis, K.S., and Marks, H.M. (1998). First, the teacher needs to get information into the mind of the child. They found a relationship between teachers holding a mathematics degree and student performance, but no relationship between teachers holding a science degree and student performance. Lee, O., Deaktor, R.A., Hart, J.E., Cuevas, P., and Enders, C. (2005). Findings from Project 2061’s curriculum review. Although there is little research on science teachers’ opportunities to learn student ideas, there is strong evidence from mathematics suggesting that teachers can learn how to work productively with student ideas about the subject matter. Working on different modules at different times of the year could complicate and weaken collaborations. This research base offers very limited guidance, however. Although there has been less research on the knowledge of science teachers (and of elementary science teachers in particular), the existing evidence supports this pattern. Marc Tucker (2004) has observed that one of the key differences between the U.S. education system and systems in countries whose students regularly outperform U.S. students is that they are instructionally coherent. American Federation of Teachers. As noted previously, while there is broad agreement that diverse student populations bring distinct experiences and identities vis-à-vis science to the classroom, there is little agreement in the field as to the most effective means of teaching diverse student populations. of Effective Instruction? Monk, D.H. (1994). There is emerging work on “folk pedagogy” or popular belief systems about how others learn and what teachers can do to cause learning in others (Strauss, 2001), which provides some insight into how people generally, and. Unfortunately, an inquiry-approach to teaching science is not the norm in schools as "many teachers are still striving to build a shared understanding of what science as inquiry means, and at a more practical level, what it looks like in the classroom ( Keeley, 2008 )." (ACARA, 2013) To be an effective teacher, a teacher must establish strategies for students to â¦ (2005). Effective instruction was defined using the Local Systemic Change Classroom Observation Protocol (Horizon Research, 2001) rubric score of a four or five. Authentic achievement: Restructuring schools for intellectual quality. Wilson, M. (2005). Two questions guide our discussion of the literature in this chapter. British Journal of Educational Pyschology, 58, 1-14. understand science content and the scientific process if teachers encourage them to use evidence to support their claims and help them make sense of new, developmentally appropriate ideas in the context of their prior thinking and their understanding of related concepts.1 Of course, effective instruction requires skilled and knowledgeable teachers Power and accountability in America’s schools. Teach your students about writing instructions with our wonderful range of writing instructions resources. (1990). Kim found that the urban systemic initiatives had demonstrable effects on teacher practice and student learning outcomes in both mathematics and science. Corcoran, T.B., McVay, S., and Riordan, K. (2003). Second, once the information is there, the challenge is how to move it to a place where it will be “stored.”, Teachers’ beliefs about student mental models, as described in this research, contrast with research on student learning that we have described in this report. Find KS2 examples of instruction writing, checklists, and tutorials; writing instructions has never been easier! School Leadership and Management, 25(4), 383-397. In the following year, researchers found that these focused interventions on key topics resulted in positive changes in teachers’ self-report of understanding and comfort with the topic, observed changes in instructional practice (the teachers enacted the benchmarking lessons), and statistically significant improvements in student learning in the second student cohort on key topics. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 34, 673-699. One potential limitation to shared kits is that reliance on them can limit the degree of school and district-level coordination of instruction as kits are frequently shared within or across schools. In addition to the common characteristics, each content area below has developed a set of content specific characteristics that demonstrate highly effective teaching and learning. Both societal and classroom-level factors inform students’ beliefs about science and the degree to which they identify with science. Elementary teacher preparation accreditation standards provide a sense of the base-level expectations that certified programs hold for prospective elementary teachers’ knowledge of science. Designing professional development for teachers of science and mathematics. (1999). Lave, J., and Wenger, E. (1991). Putnam, R.T., and Borko, H. (2000). National Research Council. Developing science teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge. In V. Richardson (Ed. BASRC evaluators (McLaughlin and Talbert, 2000) reported statistically significant relationships between measures of teacher community and gains in students’ SAT-9 scores between 1998 and 2001, as well as strong correlations between teacher community and student survey measures of teacher-student respect, student initiative in class, and students’ academic self-efficacy. Are there critical stages in a child's development of such scientific concepts as mass or animate objects? While no teacher could adequately support student learning without first mastering the content of the curriculum herself, effective teaching requires more than simple mastery. Furthermore, the overall span of time for teacher professional development is several years. interest to students, drew on computational technologies, and provided “benchmark lessons” for especially difficult content. They compared year 1 gains with year 2 gains. Wilson, S.M. Name: Features of Effective Instruction. For instance, Windshitl (2004) studied the views of pre-service science teachers as they designed and conducted studies in the context of a secondary science methods course. In this context, teacher leaders did a range of things, including planning, instruction, and working in the classroom with teachers, as well as organizing and running professional development activities. 0000023087 00000 n Delaware, Maryland, and Maine register on the high end of requirements. Some of these interventions focus on the unique qualities and challenges of working with diverse student groups (e.g., Lee et al., 2005), while others reflect approaches that are not specialized to diverse student groups per se (e.g., Boone and Kahle, 1998). They found a common mental model of learners across teachers. Why not start with this How to Write Instructions LKS2 Teaching Pack? This important area of emerging research is in its infancy, but it may ultimately provide important guidance for policy and practice. Chicago, IL: Consortium on Chicago School Research. Presidential Invited Session at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Montreal. These serve as examples for researchers to build on and as food for thought for policy makers and professional development providers. BEAR has helped to develop and refine the associated assessment frameworks, items, scoring guides, and other elements of the system and will later provide support in the process of psychometric data analyses. In Arizona, for example, elementary school certified teachers must take and pass a subject knowledge assessment—although it is not possible to ascertain what proportion of any state assessment test covers science. In the context of a multiple-year study of local systemic reform in the Detroit Public Schools, Fishman and colleagues studied the implementation of new middle school curriculum over several years. Assessing science knowledge (ASK). What is meaningful and stimulating to one group of students may not be for another. Pomeroy, D. (1993). In year 2, researchers again analyzed student learning of those key concepts, as well as instructional practice and teachers’ perception of their own understanding of the content. Available: http://bearcenter.berkeley.edu/research.php [accessed January 2005]. Stein, M.K., and D’Amico, L. (1998). Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 42(3), 337-357. Monk (1994) found that the number of postsecondary courses that mathematics and science teachers have taken is associated with incremental gains in student scores. The research does suggest that positive outcomes of teacher leaders are contingent on a carefully crafted role in the education system, as Lord and Miller (2000, p. 8) observed: Teacher leadership is part of an entire district infrastructure for mathematics and/or science reform. M. Singer and J. Tuomi (Eds. phenomena. Student positioning within groups during science activities. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. Research suggests that well-structured opportunities for teacher learning: Reflect a clear focus on the improvement of student learning in a specific content area that is grounded in the curriculum they teach. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh, Learning Research Development Center. Wilson, S.M., and Berne, J. Wenger, E. (1998). If teachers are to help students achieve science proficiency, they too need to achieve proficiency across the four strands. Given the consensus view that teacher learning should be framed in the context of the science that teachers actually teach, approaches should probably be considered in light of local resources and constraints. Drawing on a vast array of work from neuroscience to classroom observation, Taking Science to School provides a comprehensive picture of what we know about teaching and learning science from kindergarten through eighth grade. Wherever possible we draw on science-specific examples. (2003). 616 35 0000003004 00000 n Stoddart, T., Pinal, A., Latzke, M., and Canaday, D. (2002). With this understanding in hand, educators will be better positioned to craft teacher credentialing policy and design teacher learning experiences. Subject matter specialist teachers may serve as leaders of groups of teachers—working with. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 36(7), 755-776. Chapel Hill, NC: Horizon Research. Accordingly, their ideas about science become a central component of science instruction that teachers need to understand and act on. Writing Instructions for Key Stage 2. Much like the folk science of children and adults, folk pedagogy is evident across age spans and diverse populations and represents a shared, working notion of learning. If college courses were aligned with school curriculum and if higher quality measures of student achievement were available, one might find that there are no threshold effects or that they must be higher than suggested by these studies. We describe opportunities to learn that take place in the naturally occurring functions of the school, as well as through programs specifically designed to support teacher learning and improved instruction. A limited body of research indicates that professional development efforts have a positive impact on helping practicing teachers expand their beliefs and practices in integrating science with literacy development for these students. The relationship between teachers’ knowledge and students’ opportunities to learn. 0000001888 00000 n Professional development that supports student learning is rooted in the science that teachers teach and includes opportunities to learn about science, about current research on how children learn science, and about how to teach science. Hill and colleagues developed measures of teachers’ mathematical knowledge for teaching, which they defined as “the mathematical knowledge used to carry out the work of mathematics” (p. 373), such as explaining terms and concepts, interpreting students’ statements and solutions, judging and correcting textbook treatments of topics, using mathematical representations correctly in class, and providing students with examples of mathematical con-. (2000). Olson, M. (2005). As we have discussed, the current store of curriculum materials for K-8 science teachers is quite uneven. For groups to work toward instructional improvement, they require time for individuals to work together, for example, shared planning periods. In a meta-analysis of 65 studies, Druva and Anderson (1983) found that student science achievement was positively related to both the number of biology courses and the overall number of science courses. Promotes a deep understanding of the nature, theory, and practice of the instructional process and resultant learning. (Research Report No. 0000068064 00000 n Synthesis of research on the effects of mastery learning in elementary and secondary classrooms. Few questions were included that were able to sufficiently elicit students’ understanding, and even when those questions were included, the materials failed to provide interpretive frameworks for the teachers to interpret students’ responses. Teacher professional development to improve the science and literacy achievement of English language learners. Achieving science proficiency for all students will require a coherent system that aligns standards, curriculum, instruction, assessment, teacher preparation, and professional development for teachers across the K-8 years. The evidence of science-specific subject matter specialists is less clear. (1987). Yin, Y. (2000). School leaders may opt to invest in a cadre of specialized science educators—science specialists, teacher leaders, coaches, mentors, demonstration teachers, lead teachers—rather than, or in conjunction with, organized forms of teacher opportunities to learn described above. h�b```b``�a`e`� ``@ 6 da�x��� ��!��ʻ�v2�3���oy:y>�*�xq�20D������:9Ҁ4�. (2003) describe yet another way of thinking about supporting instruction through professional development. Situated sense-making: a meta-analysis their classrooms, understanding and teaching: implications for they! A free PDF, if available ) by American institutes for Research for U.S.! 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