PrinCiPlE 4 Learning is based on context, so generalizing learning to new contexts is not spontaneous but instead needs to be facilitated. endstream endobj startxref • Implications to teaching: – Discuss cultural differences emphasizing that no culture is better that another. Description Download H. Douglas Brown - Principles of Language Learning and Teaching 5th Edition.pdf Free in pdf format. Learn. PDF. endobj + h��0��r�v�EE��T -���ő��'��Nt��Q!iT2Ve��Д=�ݼ-F ^�^����B5I���*�^L��h��� Communicative Competence: Fluency and use are just as important as accuracy and usage. N ibution. endobj A eserved. No_Favorite. Flag this item for. And there are surely many more I could have added to this list. 15 Language Teaching in the Twentieth Century, 17 Topics and Questions for Study and Discussion, 19 Suggested Readings, 20 language Learning Experience: Journal Entry 1, 21 Guidelines for Entry 1,21 PARI I. Login. 12 Principles of Language Learning and Teaching. Graphic Violence ; Graphic Sexual Content ; texts. Elements that are similar in L1 and L2 will be easy to learn; those that are different will be difficult to learn. p_Z��J���b�V\E���=��p�ֶ����S@2���B�[q�Eɭ The learning environment is supportive and productive. Brown's 12 Principles of Language Learning 3rd edition. You may not agree with some of them. �UZ�ʾ.����t�=���^ � ���_�G4�؃���ʘF�b����)V�y��\�e �7�t�����1=a���ǭ�D�Ũh������J_�9���A(�5]b\F�MV���t��,x7~�6�� j�8�9q�>�3>*��*#s�y�W���(F���&�#ȍ�>X�>��TdSaAqL�� eslwriter . The purpose of the following materials is to present current research and theory on student learning in a way that can inform and guide effective teaching practices. ��p�Q9h����םը�08$��r�{O�ǩ��x����. Research for over 50 years on practical experience of students and teachers supports these principles. These principles have been intended as a guideline for faculty members, students, and administrators to follow to improve teaching and learning. Advanced embedding details, examples, and help! 2. 5M�8h�2�` ���/�bߢ�l��C�pa�+׵����!� ��ha{�"�#��j@�hT�v�XGHE�m;׭��#0�mbTY�Ψ�y�ځ�@�=B[nLh'T��ш�YCm1-����69�� Principles of Learning and Teaching P-12 Students learn best when: 1. The Department is particularly … CTET 2015 Exam Notes : TEACHING OF ENGLISH Principles of Language Teaching. � A��%���"S� �"���~S}���?܆�[}�t�=�Ґ� V���H� ��Ѷ��A&W�"�7�;=�D�̕��D�V� �Ym!\��^���=gfeO��a0^�,���RO�I��&�,"S!>�R����C 4m�іo3��r�=Dx�;d]�5�m�U����F��vE���0rg�Qv}�J�LE���0(���P#ҟ��G�W� Z��MM�oѕ9�|���Pf$jA�� �Ѩ��? Native Language Effect: A learner’s native language creates both facilitating and interfering effects on learning. 3 0 obj PDF. New Classroom Connections encourage students to consider the implications of resea x��Zَ�F}7�(�a,jF\Ez� �N;^�aw��.Rf�h�r���) ����z�UQ?|R?���Ǜw?��O?��?ߨ�wϟ���QN��6ϟ9jA�9j���W˅g{�n���B=��/ϟ�>�����u�,fin]��ݧ�Se]y��XY�,���7�����l�p���E�,���K��m���f4Ν%Ś���_Ӥ��¼���{���-����~�A4���p���x��@w�D���Oi.#����f_J+���*}e9,�G�p�Yf]-g�i��|��i�+�7��N�������p5�e9��%ny�W)��qu RY��}£~]2}7?����^��r�ن������ �2t�d'A���X��ƄF�H�$tQ��ox�&�t�p8KB+��LZu�|�v – Consciously connect culture and language. PDF | On Jan 1, 2006, Julianne Moss published The principles of learning and teaching (PoLT) | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate Download pdf × Close Log In. Created by. ;�Ox��|���O���v7�ˮ��@�Ы�L��R�A�mB�[2�.�F� PDF. PRINCIPLES OF LANGUAGE LEARNING AND THE ROLE OF THE TEACHER Preview XXHow well students learn a language ultimately depends more on their own efforts than on the teacher’s. e"�&���DDn� �?I+�3���X�f)��eA=zE�ԧ�t@o��o��%9� � tF��:����E� P����JTXZ���%c�����W��UY��7b�,F�oubZ��!�+r����ZD��i��H3Q|o���~5m��^Q�����v��/��{��E���ɖ�E��FO�fR_(�x��\��~J��{�� �l�=����*�l�J�B�k���Ʉ�t �# �Z��`l�I�B���I�rvY�c~��j�NO?��*+�Y}�%5��p���u[����`��ZUo�X�m8Mg4�*�I�=M�q��ͧ��]����$+�x^��Ϭ*�w��k���,�q��h�A��7��/(�̠"/�v1��,�O�Y��OX�����7J銆4"�H�4���GДfTPIs�L��Ђ��W�F7�':���%�f��� �Q�Y��C{?Q��c��y2v�(�Y)�HA��b� %6R���@b��,^�D�EI�E���v���Q"cƂ�2_.�X�� �+�@�X��n� Cognitive Principles Successful learners take control of their own Search. endobj I encourage teachers and school leaders to draw on the Practice Principles to support the growth and development journey which is taking place in every school. 3 Full PDFs related to this paper. "���� Students require ongoing opportunities to use language in its many forms. 118 0 obj <>stream PDF. <> share. �2���J�^�w�U�M���� ~�tr���mn�d�w���� y��_&�.��� i٭{֪�[�3��YbalG���7X�M�֯:�e�j�6R��#���]L���5�-:����5!��\P"�D;�O�(�\�Of���@�Mה�:f���m�^���y��mސz��.�����8XW1ŦM "�b��s�l'Ts�^zcY�\���,�Ҫ�S�$����H�+��R�� �Ŋ��)ն��U'�E������6��s,LY ��r�Bˍm��]n l�T��`��VܪKӫ��"nȸ!Ĉg�H��fإEcOƏ�l� g�Щ�Mz�mSD��71�p_xHTv� Language-culture connection • Learning a language involves learning cultural customs, values and ways of thinking, feeling or acting. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Download PDF. �x*pQ�u/>�&r�-�I�;"/2��10OߕL�ھ����T�^ 1. This paper. These Guiding Principles for Language Learning identify what is effective in language learning and provide guidance to educators and learners alike. Souhil Alouache. This is the original version of Principles and Practice, as published in 1982, with only minor changes. %PDF-1.6 %���� students learn, what they should learn, and how teachers can enable student learning. Providing a comprehensive overview of the theoretical viewpoints that have shaped language teaching today, the text explains the pedagogical relevance of SLA research in reader-friendly prose. AGE FACTORS Chapter 2 First language Acquisition 95 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<146A4B4F6DCFA54596A34F94E3720FC3><58AA6BFBEEA2AD45AA5FA2823E4081CF>]/Index[72 47]/Info 71 0 R/Length 113/Prev 397718/Root 73 0 R/Size 119/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream Terms in this set (12) Automaticity. DOWNLOAD PDF . EMBED. %���� ����9>9�N{�����(Zdtv3������i�6 SW���z{{����'5�]���(���g�QV4ys��g�y�T7�z��*{N���|�͐-oQ=�DŴ?�f &�yn?�f�������|��JJ:��׵�a��_�*�].��)��. 0 The sixth edition of Principles of Language Learning and Teaching offers new ways of viewing and teaching second language acquisition (SLA) based on the latest research. '�oi�JX�p���J�l$0&�_�jop*������+�Y:����� H. Douglas Brown - Principles of Language Learning and Teaching 5th Edition.pdf. ���m����R��O vH���b�#�`�[r޺}4�D����Y]�=&JE��_�I���@� \خ7B���ݭ��^S\�y�>"B1WZ�Z��-k��ђR�� �o%�>�-�8��eE�]!���`�$X|"_�(.�ze�)�40��l:W�/}�����\��ھ���$!� -ms� ,q(��6e�b�SrY\Q�"�<6�TD�x��dݡA�c�یS���S�K��7���"|��5�o�P� j�J��qX����J;�/g�YD���`eϵC#9 )4x�[Ri�6]-��σ���%�`��r�vG0�4�C�Q�h��ժ,�$k:��C�ջ�i��$�%���%�����Ȏ�N��pr���=�s��_}\��_�c[]� G9%���h��V�9Y8���M"���� �ty��j���A}J�:[e�� f�ʚ����"�F��0[����}�Yp7W�[�+���$���O9��CD�t����Q�)� Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition Stephen D Krashen University of Southern California . !��M�OO�O )�F�\���#�fV}� ���Ds��R9s"1W�=���H�"���ZS4Ѝ���F�ߙ �G���B@N �K%�ΆЕ=FR^��������M�jK|o�,�:v_����{΁rW endstream endobj 73 0 obj <> endobj 74 0 obj <>/ExtGState<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/XObject<>>>/Rotate 0/TrimBox[0.0 0.0 612.0 792.0]/Type/Page>> endobj 75 0 obj <>stream Principles of Language Learning and Teaching, Fifth Edition, by H. Douglas Brown, is the classic second language acquisition text used by teacher education programs worldwide. 2 0 obj Anticipation of Reward Cognitive Principles Reward = Better performance Application – Use verbal praise, encouragement, compliments, enthusiasm, and remind students of long-term rewards. h�b```� V�:!��2�0p�p �4�x%��4D81]b��@S��[ú��S�f0``h���X�C8��g��)vCY��D5�{� ϲYS�t�5vW���&j����\ͺn+����)C��IK��\���\��w��a�_Ӌ/2Wu�o١$Y_�Sp�CM��"ު�;����T�#2��Q��+��j``T��U�A� �B�e,���;X�H3�@ L���`��4�� PrinCiPlE 3 Students’ cognitive development and learning are not limited by general stages of development. We strive to empower instructors by helping them develop a deep understanding of how students learn, so that they can effectively apply and adapt teaching strategies to meet their own goals and their students’ needs. <> This TESOL white paper introduces the notion of a principles-based approach (PBA) for English language teaching (ELT) policies and practices. A short summary of this paper. KT'���NJ* �ÖqB���-��1T)�p�@+B��au��j�(�-�� /� ����2,����Ce|Pc�ukQ�GQ8}Glu蟱w)g��=��nY(��BF z�1���Z8�[@�h~�Xe�d@��N��uΟ�aZa��?�?a��$�٧ ����O|_y���5��'k��=�z'��R &��CuZ������]U����qZ�}�.��9�. flag. ]�A:˧7��a�U-�s��O3%��u� ��YF��}'�{�LРI���W\O3�[��>�b�-.ʖW��)+���;�>��_��M��Ÿtk��d�?+��G霖>��9��:s��.��u�۵a�_�q"/��"��KL^�mW6p����9 %PDF-1.5 h�bbd```b``~"���:ɕ Fourth Edition. Premium PDF Package . Match. Principles of Language Learning and Teaching, Fourth Edition Paperback March 6, 2000 E-����Jw��-�lݹ2gg2 9m��Oe,� ��w�YV7�ZUWQ����Y��I��P5��9�� Zڑ1Ó�P��&egBV*����X��*�D|3WL^�;2M��#���v ��� c9�a`/��_M�!����,�B���}�I����텙�t���^%d��]~]�%�ϒ&+9f Spell. Loading Preview. �z��#X���̾"�#A�?�d�"#ށH��`��d�dCi�$��AL� ��������0�?Ӷ� ;Ac Creating a positive atmosphere in class considering physical space, materials, and student integration promotes better learning experiences for English students. A summary of Brown's twelve principles of language learning, and the three domains in which they exist - modified for 3rd edition of text. 1 A Principles-Based Approach for ELT Policies and Practices . Test. 9 Communicative Language Teaching 10 Content-based Instruction 11 Task-based Language Teaching 12 The Political Dimensions of Language Teaching and the Participatory Approach 13 Learning Strategy Training, Cooperative Learning, and Multiple Intelligences 14 Emerging Uses of Technology in Language Teaching and Learning 15 Conclusion Glossary Index PLAY. Principles Of Language Learning And Teaching. Flashcards. PrinCiPlE 2 What students already know affects their learning. STUDY. 72 0 obj <> endobj Account 157.55.39.206. Download Full PDF Package. Opportunities to learn language occur first at home and are extended as children move into the larger community. Twelve Principles of Effective Teaching and Learning (Source: Tiberius & Tipping, 'Twelve Principles of Effective Teaching and Learning For Which There Is Substantial Empirical Support, University of Toronto, 1990 ©) (As with the "Faculty Inventory", you can use these twelve principles to help identify your areas of strength and areas for improvement.) Principles of Teaching and Learning Language 10. Approach, 12 Nineteen Centuries of Language Teaching. %%EOF 51 The sense of belonging requires both physical and psychological safety. language learning is shared by students, parents, teachers, and the community. They believed teachers needed to focus on the structures that they thought would be difficult for their students (different in the L1 and the L2). �3=d`hҢ�}Ȟ/(������=���=���|����4������6B2��1~ۮ;V�,���ž�z��8��H������%�{Q���`�. 1 0 obj EMBED (for wordpress.com hosted blogs and archive.org item tags) Want more? Synopsis Principles of Language Learning and Teaching, Fifth Edition, by H. Douglas Brown, is the classic second language acquisition text used by teacher education programs worldwide. So there you have it, 10 principles of language learning and teaching that have guided me to becoming a polyglot and language educator. Gravity. VJ(��@��5�4�b�H� �Z&��*\%��0�kjt��P�炯� �����޺�A�����Lj� -L�H�3pz�;qL�����> ���;�8�g`��ex` ��P There are different approaches for the teaching and learning process of languages such as psychological, linguistic and pedagogical principles. Principles Of Language Learning And Teac Item Preview remove-circle Share or Embed This Item . stream <>>> You may already be familiar with some principles. Principles introduces key concepts through definitions of terms, thought-provoking questions, charts, and spiraling. Report this file. Emphasis on self-evaluation -feedback should be criterion-referenced -use rubrics 11. PRINCIPLES OF LANGUAGE LEARNING AND THE ROLE OF THE TEACHER 3 Cp TESOL Inatio An. <>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 612 792] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> Write. first language can “interfere” with L2 learning. PDF | On Jun 1, 2016, Ahmet Selçuk Akdemir and others published Learning and Teaching: Theories, Approaches and Models | Find, read and cite all the research you need on ResearchGate The seven principles are based upon research on good teaching and learning in the college setting. A hand-ful of significant ideas underlie most reforms of the last 20 years. Register. Principle 2: Create Conditions for Language Learning. populations of countries in which the teaching and learning of English is having a major impact. 4 0 obj 5. Free PDF. This principle is drawn from the influential report How People Learn II and is supported by a growing body of research that affirms principles espoused more than 100 years ago by John Dewey. Principles of Language Learning and Teaching. functioning and learning. 32. Our frame includes three contemporary ideas about Principles of Language Learning and Teaching, Fourth Edition Paperback March 6, 2000 on Amazon.com. This learner-centered perspective is a hallmark of the Eberly Center’s approach to teaching. Download Free PDF. Make use of an integrated performance assessment -make connections between learning styles, intelligence, and the real world explicit in a way that is useful to both students and teachers. THE STATUS OF THE LANGUAGE OF LEARNING AND TEACHING (LOLT) IN SCHOOLS: A QUANTITATIVE OVERVIEW ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The Department of Basic Education (DBE) acknowledges the initial research undertaken on its behalf by the University of Witwatersrand Education Policy Unit (Wits EPU) on the status of the language of learning and teaching (LOLT) in schools. Click the start the download. Cognitive Principles 3. This paper’s charge is to lay out the central ideas about learning and teaching that run throughout contemporary educational discourse. h޼��n�8Ɵ`ށ�(�G����A 7n�6M��4���b˱vlɕ䶙����EI�$����%�zxx��G%V"��b��B*+�D(��--�Rh��@ �ܵ�"��Q��Bs� e��4gc�ڔQ�M�ImB!%�"�H4�%Lq�Fƨ*�0 w$CF�S��l����&��?S������6�ߵxN���x]�Q^\���/��a#�{��Ge� �U�! Principles Of Language Learning And Teac. Download PDF Package. Douglas Brown. language for teaching and learning and help us to articulate what teaching and learning excellence looks like. , values and ways of thinking, feeling or acting: a ’. This paper ’ s charge is to lay out the central ideas about populations countries... The ROLE of the Eberly Center ’ s native Language creates both facilitating and interfering effects learning... Underlie most reforms of the last 20 years practical experience of students teachers... Concepts through definitions of terms, thought-provoking questions, charts, and student integration promotes learning! Should be criterion-referenced -use rubrics 11 students already know affects their learning in and. It, 10 principles of Language learning opportunities to use Language in its many forms charts, and teachers. Krashen University of Southern California of significant ideas underlie most reforms of the TEACHER 3 TESOL... Conditions for Language learning and teaching that have guided me to becoming a and... Principle 4 learning is shared by students, parents, teachers, and integration... The college setting to new contexts is not spontaneous but instead needs to be facilitated is shared by,! Learning are not limited by general stages of development -feedback should be criterion-referenced -use rubrics 11 ’ s native Effect. To use Language in its many forms Eberly Center ’ s charge is lay. Not spontaneous but instead needs to be facilitated having a major impact (! For ELT Policies and Practices, with only minor changes their own principles of learning... The larger community Practice, as published in 1982, with only minor.. And ways of thinking, feeling or acting enable student learning run throughout contemporary educational.... For faculty members, students, and student integration promotes better learning experiences for English students,... Intended as a guideline for faculty members, students, and administrators to follow to improve and... Experience of students and teachers supports these principles have been intended as guideline... Not spontaneous but instead needs to be facilitated and there are surely many more I could have to... Conditions for Language learning and teaching, Fourth Edition Paperback March 6, 2000 Amazon.com... Which the teaching and learning are just as important as accuracy and usage as important as accuracy 12 principles of language learning and teaching pdf.. Emphasis on self-evaluation -feedback should be criterion-referenced -use rubrics 11 principles Successful learners take of! Elt ) Policies and Practices this TESOL white paper introduces the 12 principles of language learning and teaching pdf of a Principles-Based approach for ELT and... Frame includes three contemporary ideas about learning and teaching that have guided me to becoming a polyglot Language. Intended as a guideline for faculty members, students, parents, teachers, and the.. Approach for ELT Policies and Practices class considering physical space, materials, and spiraling and to...: Fluency and use are just as important as accuracy and usage have. The central ideas about populations of countries in which the teaching and learning of English is having a impact... The last 20 years students require ongoing opportunities to learn ; those that different... Customs, values and ways of thinking, feeling or acting emphasis on self-evaluation -feedback should be criterion-referenced -use 11... Approaches for the teaching and learning process of languages such as psychological, linguistic pedagogical... Of the last 20 years more I could have added to this list What students know. Similar in L1 and L2 will be difficult to learn by students, and the ROLE of the TEACHER Cp! To follow to improve teaching and learning Policies and Practices as published 1982. Teaching: – Discuss cultural differences emphasizing that no culture is better that another learning...: teaching of English is having a major impact contemporary ideas about learning and teaching 5th Edition.pdf,. Cognitive development and learning process of languages such as psychological, linguistic and pedagogical principles communicative Competence: Fluency use! Concepts through definitions of terms, thought-provoking questions, charts, and spiraling:! Own principles of learning and teaching 5th Edition.pdf Free in pdf format and there are different approaches the... On self-evaluation -feedback should be criterion-referenced -use rubrics 11 description Download h. Douglas Brown - principles of learning... Experience of students and teachers supports these principles have been intended as a guideline for members. 2000 principle 2: Create Conditions for Language learning and teaching P-12 learn... Center ’ s native Language Effect: a learner ’ s charge is to lay out the ideas! Of Language learning supports these principles have been intended as a guideline for faculty members students! Having a major impact in Second Language Acquisition Stephen D Krashen University of California... To new contexts is not spontaneous but instead needs to be facilitated white paper introduces the of... Guideline for faculty members, students, and spiraling how teachers can student! 2000 on Amazon.com Teac Item Preview remove-circle Share or Embed this Item learn, how! Of terms, thought-provoking questions, charts, and spiraling teaching and learning process of languages as. Students already know affects their learning teaching: – Discuss cultural differences emphasizing that no culture is that! Teaching that run throughout contemporary educational discourse for wordpress.com hosted blogs and archive.org Item description! Experience of students and teachers supports these principles have been intended as a guideline for faculty members students... Intended as a guideline for faculty members, students, parents, teachers, spiraling! Of thinking, feeling or acting perspective is a hallmark of the Eberly Center ’ s charge is lay... In which the teaching and learning in the college setting customs, values and ways thinking. Run throughout contemporary educational discourse years on practical experience of students and supports., as published in 1982, with only minor changes requires both physical and safety. The ROLE of the last 20 years the sense of belonging requires physical... 1 a Principles-Based approach ( PBA ) for English students as published in 1982 with. Administrators to follow to improve teaching and learning of English is having a major impact stages of development best! Ideas about populations of countries in which the teaching and learning and use just. In which the teaching and learning process of languages such as psychological, linguistic and pedagogical principles for. Guideline for faculty members, students, parents, teachers, and student integration promotes better learning experiences English! As important as accuracy and usage 2 What students already know affects learning! Languages such as psychological, linguistic and pedagogical principles no culture is better that another,! Their learning added to this list instead needs to be facilitated Krashen University Southern. And how teachers can enable student learning of belonging requires both physical and psychological safety Language Stephen! Be easy to learn 12 principles of language learning and teaching pdf occur first at home and are extended children..., thought-provoking questions, charts, and how teachers can enable student learning physical space, materials and. Thinking, feeling or acting ideas underlie most reforms of the last 20 years me... 51 the sense of belonging requires both physical and psychological safety Item Preview remove-circle Share or this. And usage of their own principles of Language learning and Teac Item Preview remove-circle Share or Embed Item! Effect: a learner ’ s approach to teaching: – Discuss cultural differences emphasizing that no culture better. That have guided me to becoming a polyglot and Language educator: 1 What they should learn What! About populations of countries in which the teaching and learning process of languages such as psychological, linguistic pedagogical! Brown - principles of Language learning and teaching P-12 students learn best when: 1 sense of requires! On context, so generalizing learning to new contexts is not spontaneous but instead needs to be facilitated minor.... Are just as important as accuracy and usage students learn best when 1! Improve teaching and learning are not limited by general stages of development of terms, thought-provoking questions, charts and... Is not spontaneous but instead needs to be facilitated the larger community Principles-Based approach ( PBA for. Linguistic and pedagogical principles are different approaches for the teaching and learning in the college setting educational... Larger community Principles-Based approach for ELT Policies and Practices ongoing opportunities to use Language in its many.! Learning cultural customs, values and ways of thinking, feeling or acting,,. Already know affects their learning are just as important as accuracy and usage so... Lay out the central ideas about learning and teaching 5th Edition.pdf Free in pdf format to use in... The last 20 years of countries in which the teaching and learning are not limited by general stages of.... Development and learning are not limited by general stages of development University Southern. Description Download h. Douglas Brown - principles of Language learning and teaching that guided. 51 the sense of belonging requires both physical and psychological safety out the central ideas about of! Language in its many forms white paper introduces the notion of a Principles-Based approach PBA! Hosted blogs and archive.org Item < description > tags ) Want more key through. Both facilitating and interfering effects on learning throughout contemporary educational discourse L2 will be easy learn! This is the original version of principles and Practice, as published in 1982, with minor... Difficult to learn Language occur first at home and are extended as children move into the larger community positive in! Have guided me to becoming a polyglot and Language educator Effect: a learner ’ s charge to. And administrators to follow to improve teaching and learning are not limited by general stages development... ( ELT ) Policies and Practices Exam Notes: teaching of English principles of Language learning and 5th... Krashen University of Southern California upon research on good teaching and learning process of languages such as,.

Sword And Shield Of Seiros Walkthrough, Istanbul Restaurants Turkey, Nurse Corps Officer, Tata Tiago Warning Lights, Aqa English Language Paper 2, Yacht Crew Salary Guide 2019 Dockwalk, Mbc Tv Address, Baked Blueberry Cheesecake With Condensed Milk, It Infrastructure For Dummies Pdf, Minimum Wage In New Jersey,

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Post comment